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Brown v. Board of Education

About this page

The Freedom Forum World Center Library and First Amendment Center Library have created this resource in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Brown v. Board of Education. The libraries use authoritative sources to compile this resource page. It is a work in progress and will be updated from time to time. Please feel free to e-mail, call or visit either the
Arlington or Nashville library if you have any information needs.

Last updated:  15 March 2004



Facts   Historic Documents   Resources   Media Coverage   Index  



Facts

Summary
Brown v. Board of Education: The Crowning Achievement of the U.S. Supreme Court
(David L. Hudson Jr., Freedom Forum & First Amendment Center Library)

Timelines
Timeline of Events Leading to the Brown v. Board of Education Decision, 1954 (U.S. National Archives & Records Administration)

Brown Chronology (NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.)

Statistics
U.S. Census Bureau Press Release: Brown v. Board of Education (U.S. Census Bureau, Public Information Office) "To commemorate [the] landmark decision, the Census Bureau has assembled data on the educational attainment and school enrollment of blacks — then and now."

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Historic Documents

Documents Related to Brown v. Board of Education (U.S. National Archives & Records Administration)

Full Opinion Brown v. Board of Education I (FindLaw)

Notes, William O. Douglas to Earl Warren, 11 May 1954; Harold H. Burton to Warren, 17 May 1954; and Felix Frankfurter to Warren, 17 May 1954, concerning Chief Justice Warren's decision in Brown v. Board of Education.(Earl Warren Papers) (Library of Congress)

Felix Frankfurter's draft decree to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision, [8 April 1955]. (Felix Frankfurter Papers) (Library of Congress)

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Resources

Bibliographies
The location information of each item follows the citation. ARL denotes World Center Library, Arlington. NASH denotes First Amendment Center Library, Nashville.


Overview of Case:

GREAT EVENTS -- Pasadena, CA : Salem Press, Inc. 1992-1996, Volume 5, p. 640-642.
ARL      REF D 422 .G72 1992

Hall, Kermit. THE OXFORD COMPANION TO THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES -- New York : Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 93-96.
ARL, NASH      REF KF 8742 .A35 O93 1992

"Historic Event (1940-1979): Brown v. Board of Education Ruling Begins School Desegregation Fight (1954).” Facts.com http://www.2facts.com. [general overview, impact on states] Note: Click
here for instructions on how to retrieve this article.

Kluger, Richard. Simple justice : the history of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's struggle for equality, Rev. and expanded ed.--New York : Knopf, 2004.
ARL       KF 4155 .K55 1977

Knappman, Edward W., ed.; Christianson, Stephen G., ed.; Paddock, Lisa GREAT AMERICAN TRIALS -- Detroit : Gale Research, 1994, p. 466-470.
ARL, NASH      REF KF 220 .G74 1993

Mauro, Tony. “Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,” ILLUSTRATED GREAT DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT. Washington, D.C. CQ Press, 2000, p. 22-25. [Background, impact]
ARL, NASH      REF KF 4549 .M334 2000

Patterson, James T. BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION : a civil rights milestone and its troubled legacy -- Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2001.
ARL      KF 4155 .P38 2001

Tompkins, Vincent, ed.; Baughman, Judith S., ed.; Bondi, Victor, ed.; Layman, AMERICAN DECADES -- Detroit : Gale Research, 1994-1996, Volume 6, p. 123-127.
ARL      REF E 169.12 .A419 1994

Witt, Elder, ed.“Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,” The SUPREME COURT A TO Z : a ready reference encyclopedia, CQ's encyclopedia of American government ; v.3.Washington D.C. Congressional Quarterly, 199?, p. 50-51. [General overview, Chief Justice Warren’s role]
ARL, NASH      REF KF 8742 .A35 S8 1994

Witt, Elder, ed.“School Desegregation,” The SUPREME COURT A TO Z : a ready reference encyclopedia, CQ's encyclopedia of American government ; v.3.Washington D.C. Congressional Quarterly, 199?, p. 355-357. [Plessy v. Ferguson, separate but equal cases, other cases, reaction, impact]
ARL, NASH      REF KF 8742 .A35 S8 1994

THE WORLD BOOK ENCYCLOPEDIA. “Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka," p. 645. [Brief general overview]
ARL, NASH      REF AE 5 .W55 2002

Segregation:

Beals, Melba Pattillo. Warriors don't cry : a searing memoir of the battle to integrate Little Rock's Central High -- New York : Pocket Books, c1994.
ARL       LC 214.23 .L56 B43 1994

Berman, Daniel M. (Daniel Marvin), 1928-1967. United States. Supreme Court. IT IS SO ORDERED : THE SUPREME COURT RULES ON SCHOOL SEGREGATION -- 1st ed. -- New York : Norton, 1966.
ARL       KF 4155 .B4 1966

Rasmussen, R. Kent. FAREWELL TO JIM CROW : the rise and fall of segregation in America -- New York : Facts on File, 1997.
ARL      E 185.61 .R237 1997

Sarat, Austin. RACE, LAW, AND CULTURE : reflections on Brown v. Board of Education -- New York : Oxford University Press, 1997.
ARL    KF 4155 .A2 R33 1997

Stevenson, Janet. THE SCHOOL SEGREGATION CASES (BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA AND OTHERS) : The United States Supreme Court rules on racially separate public education -- New York : F. Watts, 1973.
ARL      KF 4155 .Z9 S74 1973

Media Coverage:

PULITZER PRIZES IN JOURNALISM, 1917-1985 (MICROFORM) -- Ann Arbor : UMI, 1997.
SEE - Arkansas Gazette. Ashmore, Harry. 1958, Editorial 29:1.
SEE - Virginian-Pilot. Chambers, Lenoir. 1960, Editorial 31:6.
ARL      AS 911 .P8 1997 FILM

REPORTING CIVIL RIGHTS, pt. 1. American journalism, 1941-1963 -- New York : Library of America : Distributed to the trade in the U.S. by Penguin Putnam, 2003.
ARL, NASH       E 185.61 .R47 2003

Web sites
Reporting Civil Rights (The Library of America)

Brown v. Board of Education (Landmark Supreme Court Cases)

Brown At 50: King’s Dream or Plessy’s Nightmare? (The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University)

Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site (National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior)

Teaching With Documents Lesson Plan: Documents Related to Brown v. Board of Education (U.S. National Archives & Records Administration)

Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site ("We Shall Overcome: Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement" National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior)

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: 40 Years Later (The Woodstock Theological Center, 1993)

Brown Foundation For Educational Equity, Excellence and Research See also: The Brown Quarterly

50 Years Brown v. Board of Education (NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.)

The Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration, Brown v. Board of Education (Institute for Public Service and Policy Research)

Brown v. Board of Education 50th Anniversary Commission (U. S. Department of Education)

The Legacy of Brown v. Board of Education Reflections on the Last Fifty Years 1954-2004 (Howard University, School of Law)

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Media Coverage

Current
Looking Back: 'Brown v. Board of Education' (National Public Radio)

Historical
The following articles are available via the
New York Times / Washington Post Historic Archives database. Please note that the list below is not a complete listing of all Brown v. Board related articles available in the database. To access the articles, click on the title. When prompted, enter your Patron ID. Please feel free to e-mail, call or visit either the Arlington or Nashville library if you need assistance or have any questions.

Supreme Court Trial, 1952:

HIGH COURT TAKES SEGREGATION ISSUE; Agrees to Hear Public School Cases of South Carolina and Kansas in Next Term
By LEWIS WOOD Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: Jun 10, 1952. p. 56 (1 page)

Segregation Issue
The Washington Post (1877-1954). Washington, D.C.: Oct 11, 1952. p. 6 (1 page)

6 Groups Ask End of School Segregation
By the United Press. The Washington Post (1877-1954). Washington, D.C.: Dec 1, 1952. p. 9 (1 page)

ISSUE OF SEGREGATION IS NOW CLEARLY DRAWN; Arguments Before the Supreme Court Have Covered All the Phases of a Hotly Debated Legal Question POSSIBLE DECISIONS FORECAST
By ARTHUR KROCK. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: Dec 14, 1952. p. E3 (1 page)

Supreme Court Trial, 1953:

5 Questions Asked by Court on School Issue
The Washington Post (1877-1954). Washington, D.C.: Jun 9, 1953. p. 9 (1 page)

Justice Warren Named Early To Speed Work of Court
By Joseph Paull Post Reporter. The Washington Post (1877-1954). Washington, D.C.: Oct 15, 1953. p. 38 (1 page)

SUPREME COURT AND SEGREGATION
New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: Nov 22, 1953. p. E4 (1 page) [Editorial cartoon]

HIGH COURT URGED TO END SCHOOL BIAS; Justice Department Brief Tells Tribunal It Has the Power to Compel States to Act
By LUTHER A. HUSTON Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: Nov 28, 1953. p. 10 (1 page)

FINAL FIGHT OPENS IN SUPREME COURT ON BIAS IN SCHOOLS; Prominent Attorneys Argue on Power to End Segregation Under 14th Amendment FINAL FIGHT OPENS ON BIAS IN SCHOOLS
Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: Dec 1, 1953. p. J1 (2 pages)

School Racial Suits Fought With Calm
By Benjamin Muse. The Washington Post (1877-1954). Washington, D.C.: Dec 6, 1953. p. B2 (1 page)

SCHOOL BIAS ISSUE DIVIDES THE SOUTH; High Court Decision Awaited -- 3 States Already Acting to Bypass Any Integration
By JOHN N. POPHAM Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: Dec 14, 1953. p. 42 (1 page)

Supreme Court Trial, 1954:

HIGH COURT NEARS PUPIL BIAS RULING; Issue of School Segregation Likened in Importance to Dred Scott Decision WIDE EFFECTS FORECAST 17 States and Washington Have Forced Separation for 11,650,000 Children
By LUTHER A. HUSTON Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: Mar 8, 1954. p. 20 (1 page)

In The Nation; No Clue to the Separate Schools Case
By ARTHUR KROCK. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 6, 1954. p. 32 (1 page)

Social Trends Overriding School Segregation; School Segregation Fight Began in Boston in 1849
By Jeanne Rogers Staff Reporter. The Washington Post and Times Herald (1954-1959). Washington, D.C.: May 16, 1954. p. B1 (2 pages)

Reaction to the Decision:

Editorial Excerpts From the Nation's Press on Segregation Ruling
New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 18, 1954. p. 19 (1 page)

'HOW' AND 'WHEN' REMAIN AS ISSUES; Court to Hear Rearguments on Bias Case in October Before Decreeing Action
Special to The New York Times. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 18, 1954. p. 14 (1 page)

In The Nation; A Milestone in More Ways Than One
By ARTHUR KROCK. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 18, 1954. p. 28 (1 page)

40% of Public School Pupils in U. S. Are in Areas Where Laws Require Segregation; NEARLY 11 MILLION KNOW COLOR LINE Dual System Found Strongly Entrenched in 17 States and National Capital BUDGETS ETCH DETAILS Per Capita Outlays in Many Areas Show Inequalities in Local Facilities 40 Per Cent of Pupils in the U. S. Know Color Line; Segregated 11 Million Are in 17 States and Capital
New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 18, 1954. p. 21 (2 pages)

'Voice' Speaks in 34 Languages To Flash Court Ruling to World; 'Voice' Speaks in 34 Languages To Flash Court Ruling to World
New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 18, 1954. p. 1 (2 pages)

'Separate But Equal' Doctrine is Thrown Out; Historic Opinions On Cases in D.C., Va., 3 States Are Unanimous School Segregation Ruled Unconstitutional by Court
By Frank R. Kent, Jr. Staff Reporter. The Washington Post and Times Herald (1954-1959). Washington, D.C.: May 18, 1954. p. 1 (2 pages)

South's Leaders Are Shocked At School Integration Ruling
By Chalmers M. Roberts Staff Reporter. The Washington Post and Times Herald (1954-1959). Washington, D.C.: May 18, 1954. p. 2 (1 page)

Equal Education For All
The Washington Post and Times Herald (1954-1959). Washington, D.C.: May 19, 1954. p. 14 (1 page)

Editorial Excerpts on School Bias Ruling
New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 19, 1954. p. 20 (1 page)

Supreme Court Story Coverage
WILLIAM O. TRAPP. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 20, 1954. p. 30 (1 page) [Letter to the editor applauding the coverage]

International reaction:

BRITISH APPLAUD SEGREGATION BAN; But Press Foresees Trouble Working Out Details -- Red Papers Ignore Ruling
New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 19, 1954. p. 21 (1 page)

Free World Press Applauds
New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 20, 1954. p. 22 (1 page)

NEGROES IN KENYA EXTOL U. S. RULING; But Whites Are Cool to Court's Segregation Action -- Drive to Halt Bias There Fails
By ALBION ROSS Special to The New York Times. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 20, 1954. p. 24 (1 page)

Other Coverage:

DESEGREGATION: PROGRESS REPORT
By JAMES EWING Special to The New York Times. The New York Times. New York, N.Y.: Sep 26, 1954. p. E6 (1 page)

The Case of Linda Brown; Now a high-school senior, a girl who made history at 9 looks back on the trying days of 'Brown vs. the Board of Education.'
By WILLIAM BARRY FURLONG. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: Feb 12, 1961. p. SM63 (1 page)

Thurgood Marshall, Civil Rights Hero, Dies at 84 (1st Black on High Court, He Earlier Led Fight for Desegregation; Thurgood Marshall, Civil Rights Hero and Former Justice, Dies)
By LINDA GREENHOUSE Special to The New York Times. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: Jan 25, 1993. p. A1 (2 pages)

Aftermath of '54 Ruling Disheartens the Browns
By WILLIAM CELIS 3dSpecial to The New York Times. New York Times (1857-Current file). New York, N.Y.: May 18, 1994. p. A1 (2 pages)

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Index

Facts Historic Documents Resources Media Coverage
Summary Bibliographies Current
Timelines Web sites Historical
Statistics   1952
  1953
  1954
  Reaction
  International Reaction
  Other


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